The reasons for seasons…

We’ve had several glorious warm and sunny spring days this week – so lucky for everyone enjoying an Easter break down here in Devon, or indeed for those of us fortunate enough to live here! I love springtime and the whole cycle of rebirth and renewal heralding the arrival of longer days and (hopefully) more sunshine – so uplifting!

Somehow, seasons used to be more clear-cut when I was a child. Summers were warmer, it always snowed at Christmas and I am sure all of that is probably poppy-cock – it’s just childhood memories that seem to change as you get older. But what really makes our seasons and the weather that they bring? I thought I’d investigate…

What causes the seasons?

The seasons are a result of the tilt of Earth’s axis in relation to the Sun as we orbit around it. This tilt (all 23.5º of it!) means that throughout our orbit around the sun (which is our calendar year) certain areas of the earth are tilted towards the Sun, while other areas are tilted away from it. This creates a difference in the amount of sunlight that reaches different parts of the Earth and that’s how we get the seasons.

When does spring officially start?

Well, that depends on whether you are referring to the astronomical or meteorological spring.

The date on our calendars that marks the start of spring refers to the astronomical season which is a result of the Earth’s axis and orbit around the sun. However, organisations like the Met Office use meteorological seasons based on the annual temperature cycle as well as coinciding with the calendar to determine a clear transition between the seasons.

Since the astronomical seasons vary in length, the start date of a new season can fall on different days each year. This makes it difficult to compare seasons between different years and resulted in the introduction of the meteorological calendar. This splits the calendar into four seasons of approximately the same length. The astronomical seasons run approximately three weeks later than those of the meteorological calendar. So now you know!

Which is your favourite season?

Do tell me your favourite. I think I could make a case for each season in turn and I am very grateful to live in a country where there are actual seasons rather than constant sunshine… would one of you remind me I said that in the depths of next winter please!

 

6 Comments

Time to ‘spring forward’ – why do we change our clocks twice a year?

Time – there’s never enough of it, sometimes it flies past and at other times, it drags… Ah, we do like to talk about time and we mess around with it too – this weekend it is time to ‘spring forward’ into British Summer Time (BST) so I thought it was a good time(!) to have a search online and find out why we change the clocks twice a year…

British Summer Time is a thorny subject and something that people get very heated about. The Scots would quite like a different time to the rest of us, and those of us in the West Country are ahead of you in East Anglia, or is it the other way around? I was amused to discover that at the beginning of the 20th century, Sandringham Time (30 minutes ahead) was used by the royal household. King Edward VIII put a stop to it an effort to reduce confusion, but I rather like the idea of Queen Victoria trundling along in her own time zone… Perhaps I can introduce ‘Joanna time’? Ah, Richard says ‘no’!

Back to the facts – British Summer Time was first introduced by the Summer Time Act of 1916, after a campaign by builder William Willett. His original proposal was to move the clocks forward by 80 minutes, in 20-minute weekly steps on Sundays in April and by the reverse procedure in September – somewhat complicated!

In 1940, during the Second World War, the clocks in Britain were not put back by an hour at the end of Summer Time. In subsequent years, clocks continued to be advanced by one hour each spring and put back by an hour each autumn until July 1945. So during these summers, Britain was TWO hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and operating on British Double Summer Time (BDST). The clocks came back to GMT at the end of summer in 1945. This DBST gave much lighter evenings for everyone, but the dark mornings must have been awful.

An inquiry during 1966–67 led the government of Harold Wilson to introduce the British Standard Time experiment, with Britain remaining on GMT+1 throughout the year. This took place between 27 October 1968 and 31 October 1971, when we reverted to the previous arrangement. I must say, I don’t remember this at all… I was obviously far too young to take it in!! 

Much of the reason for this experiment was to try and reduce road accidents in the dark early evenings. Analysis of accident data for the first two years of the experiment showed that while there had been an increase in casualties in the morning, there had been a much greater decrease in casualties in the evening, with a total of around 2,500 fewer people killed and seriously injured during the first two winters of the experiment. Strong evidence to keep GMT+1 all year you would think… but it wasn’t that simple as the period of the experiment coincided with the introduction of drink-driving legislation so the estimates were later modified downwards. 

I can remember that for years we were always out of sync with the rest of Europe or, ahem, should I say they were out of sync with us. Working out when to phone people abroad was always terribly complicated as for the odd week or two, we were on the same time, or two hours ahead or behind, or…  and it is only since October 1995 that the dates of starting and ending daylight saving time across the European Union have been aligned – amazing it took so long!

And so… the arguments for and against switching to permanent BST rumble on to this day. As well as being ‘safer’ for people on the roads, campaigners also say that it would save a great deal of energy. But then groups like farmers and other outdoor workers, and many residents of Scotland and Northern Ireland, strongly object. In northern Britain and Northern Ireland, the winter sunrise would not occur until 10am or even later.

Me, I’ll just keep trying to remember to ‘spring forward’ and ‘fall back’ and, if that fails when I am old and potty, I jolly well shall introduce ‘Joanna time’ and have done with it!

4 Comments

When the writing is on the wall…

Examples of plague graffiti – church monuments memorialise the elite while graffiti remembers the ‘common voice’.I always thought graffiti was a modern day curse – but no, it’s been around for years but we just hadn’t spotted it! Apart from the surprise of discovering so much of it in our ancient churches, it is also fascinating as it is the ‘voice of the people’ – it’s not the expensively carved monument of the landed gentry, it is often the only record of ‘ordinary’ people, many of them children, who lived and died and completely disappeared.

A project to record the graffiti, which began in Norfolk churches, is gradually spreading across England. Medieval graffiti of pentagrams, crosses, ships and ‘demon traps’ have given historians a fascinating glimpse into England’s past. Armed with just a torch and a camera, a team of volunteers has recorded more than 28,000 images from churches in Norfolk alone! Although the graffiti discovered so far offers an insight into the minds of some (possibly bored!) churchgoers in the Middle Ages, the meaning of the scratched images is not always clear.

The graffiti of the the three sisters’ names has been ‘re-worked’ to highlight the writing, otherwise it is near-invisible to the eyeHowever, other graffiti is easier to interpret. Heart-breaking graffiti uncovered in a Cambridgeshire church has revealed how three sisters from one family died in a plague outbreak in 1515. The names Cateryn, Jane and Amee Maddyngley and the date were carefully inscribed on stonework in Kingston parish church. 

The graffiti project had shown that church plague graffiti was far more common than previously realised. The Maddyngley family lived in Kingston, seven miles from Cambridge, and were tenant farmers who, in the way of things, would rarely turn up in parish records.

Archaeologists believe Cateryn, Jane and Amee must have been children because their names are not found as adults in any of the records. The Maddyngleys had lived in Kingston since at least 1279. In 1515, there was an outbreak of bubonic plague in London which spread across south east England. 

Kingston Church.In times of plague, children were particularly hard-hit and usually hastily buried in unmarked graves, their little lives lost forever. The carving of the sisters’ names, who archaeologists believe died in the plague outbreak, has created a lasting memorial to them.

The project has confirmed more graffiti was created during times of pestilence such as the Black Death of 1349 and subsequent outbreaks of plague. Was it a way of remembering the dead, or commending them to God, or what? One can only imagine what it must have been like in those far off dark days to lose your children and have no memorial to them. I know lives were shorter and children often died through all sorts of ‘natural’ causes, but I found the image of a heartbroken father standing there and diligently scratching his dead daughters names and the date they died into the fabric of the church deeply touching.

 

4 Comments

For a very special friend…

I am completely in love with the images of small children that Donald Zolan drew, we talk to his daughter for licensing his artwork now. It is just so innocent and reminds one of times gone by – I realise we all still feel we are only 29(!) but at the risk of repeating myself, times were different when I was young. The freedom and joy that we had wandering around in nearby fields and woods is not something many parents feel they can allow today.

This birthday card is for a very special friend as you can see and I love the way our pads include some sentiments, borders, decoupage pieces etc. It’s like having a little card kit in a neat tidy pad. The backing papers on this card came from some of our CDs, the sea (a very useful paper that we use a lot) is on CD2 of the Thomas Kinkade CD set and the leafy design is on the Janet Kruskamp CD.

I know CDs are somewhat out of favour currently in comparison to their heyday, but I will always use them as they are a handy library facility for paper storage!

Even if it’s not your birthday today – have a happy day.

Smiles, Joanna

5 Comments

What’s in a name…?

Here’s a ‘Rose Cottage’ © Copyright John BrightleyAs you know, I am a bit of an old softy and tend to like old-fashioned, traditional things. It was great fun when we began creating the characters and places for our Swaddlecombe novels. Julia and I had many giggly hours coming up with characters’ names and inventing our own little world with the town of Westerly and the village of Swaddlecombe. We also managed to squeeze in an ‘April Cottage’, a ‘Primrose Cottage’ and a ‘Hill Farm’.

House names always interest me and I love quaint names like ‘Wisteria Cottage’ or ‘The Hollies’ or something grand like ‘The Rookery’. I think something with a peculiar name would actually put me off! A few years ago now, we used to exhibit at the NEC next to a company that made house signs and they always said ‘Rose Cottage’ was the most popular. Well, I had a bit of a search online and it seems that names change with the times and today ‘The Cottage’ is the most popular, with ‘Rose Cottage’ in second place.

A barn next to co-writer Julia’s house is called ‘The Shielings’, which was a bit of a puzzle. Apparently this means summer grazing place or hut in a wild and remote place, often in Scotland. So, one assumes it was chosen as a reminder of a previous home further north. 

An ‘Old School House. © TripAdvisorPeople quite often transfer place–names to houses, there’s a ‘Taplow Cottage’ not far from me and I am sure we have all seen examples of this. I have friends near Salisbury who live in a very old house called ‘Ilchester Cottage’… Ilchester being a village some 50 miles to the west, so someone was very ‘mobile’ a few centuries ago!

Names often reflect a nearby feature and trees are popular. ‘Orchard House’ is high up the list, as are ‘Yew Tree Cottage’, ‘The Beeches’ and ‘Pear Tree Cottage’. ‘The Elms’ used to be popular but, sadly, the decline of those lovely trees means the house name has died off in popularity too.

I like houses with wild animal names – imagine what fun it would be to live in ‘Fox Hollow’, ‘Deer’s Leap’ or ‘Badger’s Holt’! 

Changes in our society are reflected in house names and today many old schools, chapels and barns have been converted to residential use so you will probably have an ‘Old School House’ or ‘Old Chapel’ in the village. While on the one hand, it is nice to pay homage to a building’s origins, it is also sad that so many communities have lost important parts of their traditional make up. 

Do you live in a house with an interesting name? If it’s unusual, have you ever tried to look up its origins…?

 

6 Comments